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Cask or keg The process of making beer is known as brewing. A dedicated building for the making of beer is called a brewery, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of its history. A company that makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company.
Beer made on a domestic scale for non-commercial reasons is classified as homebrewing regardless of where it is made, though most homebrewed beer is made in the home. Brewing beer is subject to legislation and taxation in developed countrieswhich from the late 19th century largely restricted brewing to a commercial operation only.
However, the UK government relaxed legislation infollowed by Australia in and the US inallowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby. The first step, where the wort is prepared by mixing the starch source normally malted barley with hot water, is known as " mashing ". Hot water known as "liquor" in brewing terms is mixed with crushed malt or malts known as " grist " in a mash tun.
The grains are now washed in a process known as "sparging". This washing allows the brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from the grains as possible.
The process of filtering the spent grain from the wort and sparge water is called wort separation. The traditional process for wort separation is lauteringin which the grain bed itself serves as the filter medium. Some modern breweries prefer the use of filter frames which allow a more finely ground grist.
However, it is possible to collect a second or even third wash with the not quite spent grains as separate batches. Each run would produce a weaker wort and thus a weaker beer.
This process is known as second and third runnings. Brewing with several runnings is called parti gyle brewing. During boiling, water in the wort evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the wort remain; this allows more efficient use of the starch sources in the beer.
Boiling also destroys any remaining enzymes left over from the mashing stage. Hops are added during boiling as a source of bitterness, flavour and aroma.
Hops may be added at more than one point during the boil. The longer the hops are boiled, the more bitterness they contribute, but the less hop flavour and aroma remains in the beer. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass through a hopback, which is a small vat filled with hops, to add aromatic hop flavouring and to act as a filter; but usually the hopped wort is simply cooled for the fermenter, where the yeast is added.
During fermentation, the wort becomes beer in a process which requires a week to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of the beer. In addition to producing ethanolfine particulate matter suspended in the wort settles during fermentation.
Once fermentation is complete, the yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear. The carbonation is often increased either by transferring the beer to a pressure vessel such as a keg and introducing pressurized carbon dioxide, or by transferring it before the fermentation is finished so that carbon dioxide pressure builds up inside the container as the fermentation finishes.
Sometimes the beer is put unfiltered so it still contains yeast into bottles with some added sugar, which then produces the desired amount of carbon dioxide inside the bottle.
Once most of the alcohol has been produced during primary fermentation, the beer is transferred to a new vessel and allowed a period of secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage before packaging or greater clarity.
The most common starch source used in beer is malted grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germinationand then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln.
Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain into fermentable sugars. Darker malts will produce darker beers.
This is because its fibrous hull remains attached to the grain during threshing. After malting, barley is milled, which finally removes the hull, breaking it into large pieces. These pieces remain with the grain during the mashand act as a filter bed during lauteringwhen sweet wort is separated from insoluble grain material.
Other malted and unmalted grains including wheat, rice, oatsand ryeand less frequently, corn and sorghum may be used. Some brewers have produced gluten-free beermade with sorghum with no barley malt, for those who cannot consume gluten -containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye.Small Batches.
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