Ocean and resources

What was dumped into the ocean before ? In the past, communities around the world used the ocean for waste disposal, including the disposal of chemical and industrial wastes, radioactive wastes, trash, munitions, sewage sludge, and contaminated dredged material. Little attention was given to the negative impacts of waste disposal on the marine environment. Even less attention was focused on opportunities to recycle or reuse such materials.

Ocean and resources

Pacific Ocean, body of salt water extending from the Antarctic region in the south to the Arctic in the north and lying between the continents of Asia and Australia on the west and North and South America on the east. The Pacific Ocean, with depth contours and submarine features. Of the three oceans that extend northward from the Antarctic continent, the Pacific is by far the largest, occupying about a third of the surface of the globe.

Its area, excluding adjacent seas, encompasses about It has double the area and more than double the water volume of the Atlantic Ocean —the next largest division of the hydrosphere—and its area more than exceeds that of the whole land surface of the globe.

The mean depth of the Ocean and resources excluding adjacent seas is 14, feet 4, metresand its greatest known depth is 36, feet 11, metres —in the Mariana Trench —also the greatest depth found in any ocean.

The separation between the Pacific and Indian oceans is less distinct, but generally it is considered to lie along the line of islands extending eastward from Sumatrathrough Java to Timorthence across the Timor Sea to Cape Londonderry in Australia.

To the south of Australia the boundary extends across the Bass Strait and thence from Tasmania to Antarctica. The portion of the Pacific near Antarctica sometimes is considered to be part of the Southern Ocean. Because of the pattern of major mountain systems of the globe, a relatively small proportion one-seventh of the total continental drainage enters the Pacific—a total drainage area of less than about three times the total area of Australia.

The eastern boundary of the Pacific is associated with the American cordilleran system, which stretches from Alaska in the north to Tierra del Fuego in the south.

Except for its extreme northern and southern sections, which are characterized by fjords and their numerous off-lying islands, and except for the deeply indented Gulf of Californiathe coastal boundary is relatively regular and the continental shelf narrow.

The western, or Asiatic, coastal boundary, in contrast, is irregular. Although the mountain systems there lie roughly parallel to the coast, as they do on the eastern Pacific coastlands, the western Pacific is noted for its many marginal seas.

Ocean and resources

Their eastern boundaries are formed by southward-jutting peninsulas or island arcs or both. It is of oceanographic significance that the great rivers of eastern Asia—including the Amurthe Huang He Yellow Riverthe Yangtzethe Xi and Pearl Zhuand the Mekong —enter the Pacific indirectly by way of the marginal seas.

This article treats the physical and human geography of the Pacific Ocean. For discussion of the physical and chemical oceanography and marine geology of the Pacific, see ocean. Physiography Relief The Pacific basin may conveniently be divided into three major physiographic regions: Eastern region The eastern Pacific region, which extends southward from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, is relatively narrow and is associated with the American cordilleran system of almost unbroken mountain chains, the coastal ranges of which rise steeply from the western shores of North and South America.

The continental shelf, which runs parallel to it, is narrow, while the adjacent continental slope is very steep. Its structure is more complex than that of the eastern region.

Characteristically associated with the ocean trenches of the western region are festoons of either peninsulas or islands or both. The islands, which include those of Japan as well as numerous smaller islands, represent the upper parts of mountain systems that rise abruptly from the deep ocean floor.

The island clusters of the western Pacific form the boundaries of the several wide and deep continental seas of the region. Aerial view of rock islands, Palau.

The submerged parts of the series of ridges that are capped by the island archipelagoes of the western Pacific are continuous and are to be found at depths of less than about 2, feet metres. These ridges include the Aleutian Ridge in the northwestern Pacific; the series of ridges extending southward through the KurilBoninand Mariana island groups, and the archipelagoes of Yap and Palau ; those extending eastward from New Guineaincluding the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon and Santa Cruz island chains; and, finally, the ridges extending southward, from which rise the SamoaTongaKermadecand Chatham island groups, as well as Macquarie Island.

Bottom deposits Apart from the narrow coastal zone of the eastern region and the broad continental seas of the western region, the Pacific is floored with pelagic oceanic material derived from the remains of marine plants and animals that once inhabited the waters lying above. Calcareous globigerina ooze occurs in the shallower parts of the South Pacific, the dissolving power of the seawater at great depths being sufficient to dissolve calcareous material to such an extent that these oozes are not generally found at depths in excess of about 15, feet 4, metres.Coastal and Ocean Resources.

Coastal and Ocean Resources (CORI) is an international organization offering marine environmental science and consulting services.

resources. Yet the increasing population and the exhaustion of readily accessible terrestrial deposits undoubtedly will lead to broader exploitation of ancient deposits and increasing extraction directly from ocean water and ocean basins. Ocean Resources Marine Conservation Home / NEXT: Sustainable Ecotourism».

The ocean is one of Earth's most valuable natural resources. It provides food in the form of fish and shellfish—about billion pounds are caught each year. The guides, videos, infographics and reports featured on this page are intended to inform and enable organizations and individuals alike in their efforts to advance actions that prevent plastic pollution and encourage solutions for a healthy ocean.

C-CORE Associates provide support and advice regarding potential research topics and directions. Compare International Shipping Costs from USA between Air Freight and Ocean Freight.

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