It was written using cuneiforma script adopted from the Sumerians using wedge-shaped symbols pressed in wet clay. As employed by Akkadian scribes, the adapted cuneiform script could represent either a Sumerian logograms i. However, in Akkadian the script practically became a fully fledged syllabic scriptand the original logographic nature of cuneiform became secondary, though logograms for frequent words such as 'god' and 'temple' continued to be used. For this reason, the sign AN can on the one hand be a logogram for the word ilum 'god' and on the other signify the god Anu or even the syllable -an.
Dipylon jug, Lefkandi Pithekoussai Greek. Das Buch der Schrift. Imprimerie Nationale de France. The universal history of numbers: The antiquity of the Greek alphabet and the early Phoenician scripts.
Homer and the origin of the Greek alphabet. The story of writing. There is a monster in the alphabet. Kennicott, Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum, cum variis lectionibus, 2 vols. New York,p. Rowley Oxford,pp. Powerll, Table of Phoenician and Greek Letterforms, Reconstruction of Character names.
Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, pp. Their discovery is expected to help fix the time and place for the origin of the alphabet, one of the foremost innovations of civilization.
Carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing, in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences, has been dated to somewhere between and B. The first experiments with alphabet thus appeared to be the work of Semitic people living deep in Egypt, not in their homelands in the Syria-Palestine region, old akkadian writing and grammar communication had been thought.
Although the two inscriptions have yet to be translated, other evidence at the discovery site supports the idea of the alphabet as an invention by workaday people that simplified and democratized writing, freeing it from the elite hands of official scribes.
As such, alphabetic writing was revolutionary in a sense comparable to the invention of the printing press much later. Alphabetic writing emerged as a kind of shorthand by which fewer than 30 symbols, each one representing a single sound, could be combined to form words for a wide variety of ideas and things.
This eventually replaced writing systems like Egyptian hieroglyphics in which hundreds of pictographs, or idea pictures, had to be mastered. John Coleman Darnell, an Egyptologist at Yale University, said last week in an interview about the discovery. Darnell and his wife, Deborah, a Ph. In the season, they came upon walls of limestone marked with graffiti at the forlorn Wadi el-Hol, roughly translated as Gulch of Terror.
Last summer, the Darnells returned to the wadi with several specialists in early writing. A report on their findings will be given in Boston on Nov.
Working in the baking June heat "about as far out in the middle of nowhere as I ever want to be," Dr. Bruce Zuckerman, director of the West Semitic Research Project at the University of Southern California, assisted the investigation by taking detailed pictures of the inscriptions for analysis using computerized photointerpretation techniques.
Things I wrote only two years ago I now consider out of date. Cross, an emeritus professor of Near Eastern languages and culture at Harvard University, who was not a member of the research team but who has examined the evidence, judged the inscriptions "clearly the oldest of alphabetic writing and very important.
And another discovery in June by the Darnells seemed to establish the presence of Semitic people at the wadi at the time of the inscriptions. Surveying a few hundred yards from the site, the Darnells found an inscription in nonalphabetic Egyptian that started with the name of a certain Bebi, who called himself "general of the Asiatics.
Another reference to this Bebi has been found in papyrus records. Darnell said of the conclusion that early alphabetic writing was developed by Semitic-speaking people in an Egyptian context. He surmised that scribes in the troops of mercenaries probably developed the simplified writing along the lines of a semicursive form of Egyptian commonly used in the Middle Kingdom in graffiti.
Working with Semitic speakers, the scribes simplified the pictographs of formal writing and modified the symbols into an early form of alphabet. McCarter said, interpreting how the alphabet may have arisen. So these people adopted a crude system of writing within the Egyptian system, something they could learn in hours, instead of a lifetime.
It was a utilitarian invention for soldiers, traders, merchants. The meaning of some signs is less certain. The figure of a stick man, with arms raised, appears to have developed into an H in the alphabet, for reasons unknown. Scholars said they could identify shapes of letters that eventually evolved from the image of an ox head into A and from a house, which looks more like a 9 here, into the Semitic B, or bayt.
The origins and transitions of A and B are particularly interesting because the Egyptian-influenced Semitic alphabet as further developed by the Phoenicians, latter-day Canaanites, was passed to the Greeks, probably as early as the 12th century B.
From the Greeks the simplified writing system entered Western culture by the name alphabet, a combination word for the Greek A and B, alpha and beta.The present study of Old Akkadian writing and grammar is based on sources fully listed and discussed in the Glossary of Old Akkadian published in as MAD III.
The sources are quoted in the measure of their relevance. Thus, under Writing, only the typical examples -ma-tum, ma-na-ma. script patterned after cuneiform writing, Elam adopted Mesopotamian script during the Akkadian period and with a few exceptions used it even when writing in Elamite rather than Sumerian or Akkadian.
Books by Ignace J. Gelb, Old Akkadian inscriptions in Chicago Natural History Museum, Hurrians and Subarians, Old Akkadian writing and grammar, Glossary of Old Akkadian, Pour une théorie de l'écriture, Old Akkadian stone tablet from Sippar, Old Akkadian inscriptions in Chicago Natural History Museum, Pour une théorie de l'écriture.
Old Akkadian writing, like other languages that adapted the cuneiform writing system, contains all the features of the Sumerian system: logograms, syllabograms, and auxiliary signs (such as determinatives). Cuneiform was a writing system used between roughly 5, and 1, years ago, so for more than 3, years.
That makes it the longest-lasting writing system in known history-longer than the Chinese writing system, which has existed for about 3, years.
. Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken initiativeblog.comg is not a language, but a tool used to make languages be read. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar.