Examples of book references are: In giving the city of publication, an internationally well-known city such as London, The Hague, or New York is given as the city alone. If the city is not internationally well known, the country or state and country if in the U.
Introduction The first section in the body is the introduction. There is no heading that says 'Introduction,' you simply Paper parenthetical reference research the paper in paragraph form following the title.
Every introduction will have the following roughly in this order: The entire section should be in paragraph form with the possible exception of the hypotheses, which may be indented. Methods The next section of the paper has four subsections: Sample; Measures; Design; and, Procedure.
The Methods section should begin immediately after the introduction no page break and should have the centered title 'Methods'. Each of the four subsections should have an underlined left justified section heading. Sampling This section should describe the population of interest, the sampling frame, the method for selecting the sample, and the sample itself.
A brief discussion of external validity is appropriate here, that is, you should state the degree to which you believe results will be generalizable from your sample to the population. Link to Knowledge Base on sampling.
Measures This section should include a brief description of your constructs and all measures that will be used to operationalize them. You may present short instruments in their entirety in this section.
If you have more lengthy instruments you may present some "typical" questions to give the reader a sense of what you will be doing and include the full measure in an Appendix. You may include any instruments in full in appendices rather than in the body.
Appendices should be labeled by letter. For pre-existing instruments you should cite any relevant information about reliability and validity if it is available. For all instruments, you should briefly state how you will determine reliability and validity, report the results and discuss.
For reliability, you must describe the methods you used and report results. A brief discussion of how you have addressed construct validity is essential. In general, you should try to demonstrate both convergent and discriminant validity. You must discuss the evidence in support of the validity of your measures.
Link to Knowledge Base on measurement.
Design You should state the name of the design that is used and tell whether it is a true or quasi-experiment, nonequivalent group design, and so on. You should also present the design structure in X and O notation this should be indented and centered, not put into a sentence. You should also include a discussion of internal validity that describes the major likely threats in your study and how the design accounts for them, if at all.
Be your own study critic here and provide enough information to show that you understand the threats to validity, whether you've been able to account for them all in the design or not. Link to Knowledge Base on design.
Procedures Generally, this section ties together the sampling, measurement, and research design. In this section you should briefly describe the overall plan of the research, the sequence of events from beginning to end including sampling, measurement, and use of groups in designshow participants will be notified, and how their confidentiality will be protected where relevant.
An essential part of this subsection is a description of the program or independent variable that you are studying. Link to Knowledge Base discussion of validity. Results The heading for this section is centered with upper and lower case letters.
You should indicate concisely what results you found in this research. Your results don't have to confirm your hypotheses.A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.
1. Select a general topic that interests you in some way.. 2. List key words to help you look up information about the topic..
3. Go to an encyclopedia, or other reference source, to get an overview of the topic.. 4. Make source cards for whatever sources you will use for information.. 5. How to Format a Research Paper. There are a number of sources you can turn to for research paper examples and, depending on your field of study, a plethora of potential high quality topics exist to pull your subject matter from.
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.
The Process f Research Writing Chapter 12, Citing Your Research Using MLA or APA Style, 2 Steven D. Krause | initiativeblog.com | Spring A content note generally contains useful information and explanations that do not fit into the primary text itself. Content notes may be given as footnotes or endnotes or even a combination of both footnotes and endnotes.
Such content notes may themselves contain a style of parenthetical referencing.