Indian philosophy Indian philosophy Sanskrit: Some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period — BCE. Important Indian philosophical concepts include dharmakarmasamsaramoksha and ahimsa. Indian philosophers developed a system of epistemological reasoning pramana and logic and investigated topics such as metaphysics, ethics, hermeneutics and soteriology.
The two main forms of the relationship between church and state that have been predominant and decisive through the centuries and in which the structural difference between the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodoxy becomes most evident can best be explained by comparing the… Nature of theology The concept of theology that is applicable as a science in all religions and that is therefore neutral is difficult to distill and determine.
The problem lies in the fact that, whereas theology as a concept had its origins in the tradition of the ancient Greeks, it obtained its content and method only within Christianity. Thus, theology, because of its peculiarly Christian profile, is not readily transferable in its narrow sense to any other religion.
In its broader thematic concerns, however, theology as a subject matter is germane to other religions. The Greek philosopher Platowith whom the concept emerges for the first time, associated with the term theology a polemical intention—as did his pupil Aristotle.
For Plato, theology described the mythicalwhich he allowed may have a temporary pedagogical significance that is beneficial to the state but is to be cleansed from all offensive and abstruse elements with the help of political legislation.
This identification of theology and mythology also remained customary in later Greek thought.
In spite of all the contradictions and nuances that were to emerge in the understanding of this concept in various Christian confessions and schools of thought, a formal criterion remains constant: Here, then, the above indicated difficulty becomes apparent.
In this sense it is not neutral and is not attempted from the perspective of removed observation—in contrast to a general history of religions. The implication derived from the religious approach is that it does not provide a formal and indifferent scheme devoid of presuppositions within which all religions could be subsumed.
In the second place, theology is influenced by its origins in the Greek and Christian traditions, with the implication that the transmutation of this concept to other religions is endangered by the very circumstances of origination.
If one nonetheless speaks of theology in religions other than Christianity or Greek religionone implies—in formal analogy to what has been observed above—the way in which representatives of other religions understand themselves.
The normative element in these religions arises simply out of the authority of a divine teacher or out of a revelation e. The academic study of religionwhich encompasses also religious psychologyreligious sociologyand the history and phenomenology of religion as well as the philosophy of religionhas emancipated itself from the normative aspect in favour of a purely empirical analysis.
This empirical aspect, which corresponds to the modern conception of science, can be applied only if it functions on the basis of objectifiable empirically verifiable entities.
Revelation of the kind of event that would have to be characterized as transcendenthowever, can never be understood as such an objectifiable entity.
Only those forms of religious life that are positive and arise out of experience can be objectified. Wherever such forms are given, the religious person is taken as the source of the religious phenomena that are to be interpreted. Understood in this manner, the study of religion represents a necessary step in the process of secularization.
Nevertheless, it cannot be said that theology and the history of religions only contradict one another. In this regard, then, there are not only analytical but also theological statements concerning religious phenomena, particularly in regard to the manner in which such statements are encountered in specific primitive or high religions.
Thus, the objects of the history of religions and those of theology cannot be clearly separated. They are merely approached with different categories and criteria.
If the history of religions does not surrender its neutrality—since such a surrender would thereby reduce the discipline to anthropology in an ideological sense e.
Relationship to philosophy The relationship of theology to philosophy is much more difficult to determine, because it is much more complicated. The problems can here only be mentioned. If one understands philosophy as the discipline that attempts to explicate the totality of being, the difference between philosophy and theology becomes apparent.
If theology is responsible to an authority that initiates its thinking, speaking, and witnessing—e. Since, on the other hand, theology also uses reason and systematically develops its tenets—however much its critical reflections are based on religious convictions—there are many common areas that have partly complementary significance but that partly also lead to polemical tensions.Philosophy, today, may be practiced in a way that links and is in partnership with multiple other disciplines.
The different fields of inquiry (law, medicine, logic, theology, mathematics, the natural sciences, psychology, etc.) came to form their own disciplines over time as they emerged as distinctive forms of inquiry with their own philosophical .
Philosophy is the bridge between thought and existence, truth and being, the internal and the external, Dasein and being-in-the world, aletheia and initiativeblog.com Heidegger, "thinking of being, wants. While philosophy and science as held as separate disciplines (and often taught in completely different colleges within a university [i.e.
College of Liberal Arts vs.
College of Science]), it is patently clear that there is an immutable relationship between philosophy and . The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/ Mythopoeic Thought. The pioneering work on this subject was The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East by Henri Frankfort, H.A.
Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, and William A. Irwin (University of Chicago Press, , -- also once issued by Penguin as Before Philosophy). Sep 01, · The reach of philosophy may be so vast and varied that people of philosophy might find it difficult to agree on a formal definition of philosophy.
If you do love engineering, or medicine or another particular field, you might connect the term philosophical to your love of engineering, thus meaning that you do love the Status: Resolved.
Aesthetics has traditionally been part of other philosophical fields like epistemology or ethics but it started to come into its own and become a more independent field under Immanuel Kant, pictured here in a painting by by E. Hader, dated