My favourite gymnast is Olga Korbut who has been called many things including the "first of the pixies", "a circus act" and "the queen of gymnastics". Olga was born on May 6th. She had not been a strong pupil at school, but her teacher noticed her agility during physical exercises and recommended that she enroll in one of the gymnastics schools run by the State Sport Committee.
Other problem-solving techniques Concisely stated, a genetic algorithm or GA for short is a programming technique that mimics biological evolution as a problem-solving strategy. Given a specific problem to solve, the input to the GA is a set of potential solutions to that problem, encoded in some fashion, and a metric called a fitness function that allows each candidate to be quantitatively evaluated.
These candidates may be solutions already known to work, with the aim of the GA being to improve them, but more often they are generated at random. The GA then evaluates each candidate according to the fitness function.
In a pool of randomly generated candidates, of course, most will not work at all, and these will be deleted. However, purely by chance, a few may hold promise - they may show activity, even if only weak and What exactly are the paralympic games essay activity, toward solving the problem.
These promising candidates are kept and allowed to reproduce. Multiple copies are made of them, but the copies are not perfect; random changes are introduced during the copying process. These digital offspring then go on to the next generation, forming a new pool of candidate solutions, and are subjected to a second round of fitness evaluation.
Those candidate solutions which were worsened, or made no better, by the changes to their code are again deleted; but again, purely by chance, the random variations introduced into the population may have improved some individuals, making them into better, more complete or more efficient solutions to the problem at hand.
Again these winning individuals are selected and copied over into the next generation with random changes, and the process repeats. The expectation is that the average fitness of the population will increase each round, and so by repeating this process for hundreds or thousands of rounds, very good solutions to the problem can be discovered.
As astonishing and counterintuitive as it may seem to some, genetic algorithms have proven to be an enormously powerful and successful problem-solving strategy, dramatically demonstrating the power of evolutionary principles.
Genetic algorithms have been used in a wide variety of fields to evolve solutions to problems as difficult as or more difficult than those faced by human designers. Moreover, the solutions they come up with are often more efficient, more elegant, or more complex than anything comparable a human engineer would produce.
In some cases, genetic algorithms have come up with solutions that baffle the programmers who wrote the algorithms in the first place! Methods of representation Before a genetic algorithm can be put to work on any problem, a method is needed to encode potential solutions to that problem in a form that a computer can process.
One common approach is to encode solutions as binary strings: Another, similar approach is to encode solutions as arrays of integers or decimal numbers, with each position again representing some particular aspect of the solution.
This approach allows for greater precision and complexity than the comparatively restricted method of using binary numbers only and often "is intuitively closer to the problem space" Fleming and Purshousep. This technique was used, for example, in the work of Steffen Schulze-Kremer, who wrote a genetic algorithm to predict the three-dimensional structure of a protein based on the sequence of amino acids that go into it Mitchellp.
Schulze-Kremer's GA used real-valued numbers to represent the so-called "torsion angles" between the peptide bonds that connect amino acids. A protein is made up of a sequence of basic building blocks called amino acids, which are joined together like the links in a chain.
Once all the amino acids are linked, the protein folds up into a complex three-dimensional shape based on which amino acids attract each other and which ones repel each other.
Joshua Frawley, Marine Corps. Joshua Frawley received the Marine Corps Military Child of the Year® Award as a year-old freshman at White Oak High School in Jacksonville, N.C. Joshua is the son of retired Gunnery Sgt. Daniel Frawley and Susan Frawley. Winter Paralympic Games Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated , and does not play the . Comparison Of Olympic And Paralympic Games. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, Last Edited: 8th May, Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here.
The shape of a protein determines its function. Genetic algorithms for training neural networks often use this method of encoding also. A third approach is to represent individuals in a GA as strings of letters, where each letter again stands for a specific aspect of the solution.
One example of this technique is Hiroaki Kitano's "grammatical encoding" approach, where a GA was put to the task of evolving a simple set of rules called a context-free grammar that was in turn used to generate neural networks for a variety of problems Mitchellp.
The virtue of all three of these methods is that they make it easy to define operators that cause the random changes in the selected candidates: See the section on Methods of change for more detail about the genetic operators.
Another strategy, developed principally by John Koza of Stanford University and called genetic programming, represents programs as branching data structures called trees Koza et al.
In this approach, random changes can be brought about by changing the operator or altering the value at a given node in the tree, or replacing one subtree with another. Three simple program trees of the kind normally used in genetic programming.
The mathematical expression that each one represents is given underneath.Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and initiativeblog.com Winter Paralympic Games Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated , and does not play the .
Free attendance papers, essays, and research papers. Family Income and School Attendance - Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine if there was any connection between family income and school attendance and achievement in the early years of education, specifically in kindergarten through fourth grade.
All the latest news, reviews, pictures and video on culture, the arts and entertainment. Joshua Frawley, Marine Corps. Joshua Frawley received the Marine Corps Military Child of the Year® Award as a year-old freshman at White Oak High School in Jacksonville, N.C.
Joshua is the son of retired Gunnery Sgt. Daniel Frawley and Susan Frawley. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from initiativeblog.com